Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

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Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

Post  Animal on Fri 08 Aug 2008, 2:18 pm


1.Strategoss (General). Rank held only by King Constantine I.
2. Antistrategos (Lt.Gen)
3. Ypostrategos (Maj.Gen)
4. Syntagmatarches (Colonel)
5. Antisyntagmatarches (Lt.Col)
6. Tagmatarches (Major)
7. Lochagos (Cpt, Moirarchos in Gendarmerie)
8. Ypolochagos (1st Lt, Ypomoirarchos in Gendarmerie)
9. Anthypolochagoss (2nd Lt, Anthypomoirarchos in Gendarmerie)
10. Anthypaspistees (WO)
11. NCOs & men (Infantry)
12. NCOs & men (Artillery)
13. NCOs & men (model 1915)
14. Epilochias (Colour Sergeant, Enomotarches A' in Gendarmerie)
15. Lochias (Sergeant, Enomotarches B' in Gendarmerie)
16. Dekaneas (Cpl, Ypenomotarches in Gendarmerie)
17. Ypodekaneas (Lance Cpl)
18. Hoplites (Pvt, Chorophylax in Gendarmerie)

From left to right: Lieutenant General, Colonel (Engineers), Captain (Line Infantry, Euzones, Staff Officers)

1-Cavalry, Engineers, Supply, Gendarmerie had silver shoulder board (officers), silver lace (NCOs) & silver buttons, other branches gold.
2-Army branch colours: Line Infantry, General Officers, Staff Officers, Euzones-red, Cavalry-bright red, Artillery-dark red pipings, black in brackets, Ordnance, Transportation-dark red, Engineers-blue, Medical,Veterinary-purple, Finance-orange, Gendarmerie-dark blue (almost black).

Euzone Private

Army Academy Cadet, senior student (4th year- holding the Corporal's rank)

Artillery Cpl

Euzone Sgt (Official Uniform)

Infantry Sgt

Cavalry Sgt. From 1898-1915, Cavalry had bright red as distinct colour branch

Scout (Proskopos) Sgt.
Scouts were volunteers, mostly from Crete

Engineers Colour Sergeant (1st Engineers Regiment). From 1898-1915, Engineers had blue as distinct branch colour

Artillery 1st Lt (Ypilarchos). He's wearing the M1868 No1 Uniform, known as "Megale Stolee"-Grand Uniform

Infantry Cpt

Artillery Major, wearing the M1870 Uniform, known as "Mikra Stolee"-Small Uniform

Major General

Royal Hellenic Gendarmerie (Elliniki Vassiliki Chorophylakee) 2nd Lt (Anthypomoirarchos). In the Balkan Wars, Gendarmerie had Military Police duties (Patrolling the occupied areas, Interviewing witnesses, Escorting POWs)

Major of the Italian Garibaldi Volunteers & their Colors. Italian Volunteers (known as Garibaldini or red-suits), fought alongside the Greek Army, especially in Epirus. They used the Greek Army's rank insignia

1st Class Gendarme of the Cretan Gendarmerie. Cretan Gendarmes had MP duties in the Balkan Wars, mostly in the Salonika region. Their ranking system was Greek & the insignia used was a mix of Italian Carabinieri & Greek Army. One silver chevron poin down: Gendarme 1st Class (Chorophylax Protes Taxeos). Two silver chevrons: Gendarmerie Cpl (Ypenomotarches). Three silver chevrons: Gendarmerie Sgt (Enomotarches)

Left: Hellenic Army National Cockade. Right: Cretan Gendarmerie Cockade (with the royal monogram of the Greek Crown Prince George II who was the high commissioner on the island). The anchor stands for the island of Crete

Greek War Flag


Draftee Able Seaman (Naphtes), wearing the winter battle service dress

Draftee Able Seaman, wearing the summer service dress

Draftee Able Seaman of the Marines. The only difference between the Seaman's & the Marine's insignia, was the embroidered hunter's horn under the chevron worn by the Marines

Career Petty Officer (Ypokelephstees A')

Royal Hellenic Navy Cadet, senior student (4th year), holding the Senior Seaman's rank (Diopos). The horn on his left branch, suggests that he's an expert marksman

Royal Hellenic Navy Ensign (Semaeophoros)

Royal Hellenic Navy Commander-Medical Doctor (Antiploiarchos-Iatros), wearing the No2 Official Uniform. Notice that the ubiquitous loop is absent from the insignia (only for line officers)

Royal Hellenic Navy Vice Admiral (Yponavarchos), wearing the No1 Official Uniform

1-Navy branch colours: Engineers-purple, Medical-red, Finance-white, Pharmacist-dark green
2-NCOs & enlisted seamen specialty insignia: anchor-line, five wing star-yeoman, crossed anchor with shovel-machinist's mate, crossed anchor with torpedo-torpedoman, flaming grenade-gunner, horn-marines, red cross-hospital corpsman, propeller-engineer's mate, greek letter Ξ-carpenter's mate, letter I-ordnance repairman, letter T-ship's clerk, letter O-ordnance artificer, letter X-steward, greek letter Σ-cook
3-NCOs rank insignia: one red chevron point up (2cm-3/4 inch thick) on shoulder-draftee able seaman or seaman A' class (naphtes A' taxeos), two red chevrons (2cm) on shoulder-senior seaman (Diopos), one gold chevron (2cm) on shoulder-Draftee Petty Officer or Petty Officer B' (Ypokelphstees B'), one gold chevron (2cm) above one golden chevron (1cm-1/2 inch thick) on shoulder-Career Petty Officer or Petty Officer A' (Ypokelephstees A'), two gold chevrons (2cm) on shoulder-Chief Petty Officer (Kelephstees), three gold chevrons (2cm) on sleeve-Master chief petty officer (Archikelephstees). Master Chief Petty Officer had one gold stripe (5mm/0.2 inch) on the visor cap.
4-RHN cockade consisted of the greek royal arms above the navy anchor placed on the greek national colours cockade, surrounded by laurel leaves

Royal Hellenic Navy Colors

....soon to come, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria & Ottoman Empire.


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Re: Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

Post  Animal on Fri 08 Aug 2008, 2:20 pm


1: Vojvoda (Field Marshal)
2: Djeneral (maj.gen)
3: Djeneral (maj.gen, King's adjutant)
4: Pukovnik (Colonel) 10th Inf.Reg.
5: Potpukovnik (Lt.Col) 2nd Cavalry Reg.
6: Major, General Staff
7: Major, Medical Corps
8: Kapetan I klase (Senior Captain), 6th Field Art. Reg.
9: Kapetan II klase (Captain), Bridging Engineer Btn.
10: Porucnik (1st Lt), Railway Engineer Bn.
11: Porucnik (1st Lt), 2nd Garrison Art. Bn.
12: Potporucnik (2nd Lt), Air Corps
13: Narednik (Sgt), 3rd Engineer Bn.
14: Narednik (Sgt), Serbian Volunteer Corps
15: Podnarednik (Cpl), 1st Cav. Regt.
16: Kaplar (lance Cpl), 9th Mount. Art. Battery
17: Redov (Pvt), Frontier Troops
18: Redov (Pvt), 4th Art. Regt.

Field Marshal & General Officers (Vojvode i Generali) 1-3
: Gold braid cords, gold buttons, grey-blue underlay, silver metal eagle & monogram. Field Officers (Visi Oficiri) 4-7: Gold (silver on 5,7) braid shoulder board, gold (silver on 5,7) buttons, branch colour piping, silver (gold on 5,7) metal pips & unit insignia. Subaltern Officers (Nizi Oficiri) 8-12: Gold (silver on 9-12) braid shoulder board, gold (silver on 9-12) buttons, branch colour piping, silver (gold on 9-12) metal pips & unit insignia. NCO (Podoficiri), men (kaplari i redovi) 13-18: Grey-green uniform strap, gold (silver on 13,15) buttons, gold metal pips & unit insignia.
Serbian Army Branch Colours: Generals-light blue, Staff Officers-scarlet red, Infantry-red, Artillery-black, Cavalry-dark blue, Engineers-purple, Railway units-purple, Ordnance-black, Gerndarmerie-light beige.

Infantry Sgt (Narednik), Infantry Sergeant I class (Narednik I klase, introduced in 1912), Infantry Captain (Kapetan II klase), Cavalry Col (Pukovnik), Lt Gen (Djeneral)

Royal Serbian Army badge. Cyrillic inscription on "ZA KRALJA I OTADZBINU" ("for the King and Fatherland")

Cavalry man wearing the M1890 service uniform

Infantry Cpl (Podnarednik). This Infantry man wears leather boots, known as "opanker"

Infantry 1st Lt (Porucnik), wearing the M1890 official uniform

Infantry Major wearing the M1912 service uniform

Artillery Col (Pukovnik)

Djeneral (Maj.Gen). Notice the light blue stiff collar & the red stripes on the cavalry culottes (lampassen)

Serbian War Flag. The flag had an embroidered eagle with the motto: "For King and Fatherland/with Faith in God". St. Andrew & campaign streamers were on the reverse


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Re: Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

Post  Animal on Fri 08 Aug 2008, 2:24 pm


1.Vrhovni Komandant (Field Marshal)
2.Glavni Inspektor (Lt.Gen)
3.Divizijar (Maj.Gen)
4.Brigadir (Brig.Gen, King's Adjutant)
5.Komandir (Lt.Col), Inf.
6.Komandir (Lt.Col), Art.
7.Kapetan (Cpt), Staff
8.Porucnik (1st Lt), MG companies
9.Potporucnik (1at Lt), Engineers
10.Alajbarjaktar (Ensign of the Army)
11.Brigadni Barjaktar (Brigade Ensign)
12.Bataljonski Barjaktar (Btn Ens)
13.Cetni Barjaktar (Company Ens)
14.Vodnik (Sgt)
15.Desecar (Cpl)
16.Perjanik (Pvt), Royal Guard
17.Topnik (Pvt), Artillery
18.Vojnik (Pvt) other branches

General Officers (generali) 1-4
: Gold metal cap badges, gold russian braid shoulder boardes piped crimson, silver braid or metal stars. Field & subaltern officers (oficiri) 5-9: Gold metal cap badges (5-8 ) (silver scimitars-7, silver eagle, lion, shield-8 ), silver metal cap bdge (9), gold braid shoulder boards piped branch colour, silver metal stars.
Standard bearers (barjaktari) 10-13: Gold metal cap badges, (10-12) (silver cross-12), silver metal cap badge (13). NCOs (podoficiri) 14-15 & men (vojnici) 16-18: White metal cap badges.
Montenegrin Army Branch Colours: Generals-red, Staff-white, Technical-white, Infantry-red, MG companies-light blue, Artillery-yellow, Engineers-green, Medical-silver & black stripe, Gendarmerie-red shoulder boards with the letter Z (for ŽANDARMERIJA)

Infantry Cpl (Desecar) wearing the M1910 service dress & the Obilic medal

Infantry Cpt (Kapetan) wearing the M1910 service dress. The medals are the Danilo I & the medal for valor

Third line Infantry man, wearing the traditional Montenegrin uniform

MG companies Captain (Kapetan), Infantry Colonel (Pukovnik, rank introduced in 1912)

The Montenegrin War Flag in 1912. The royal cypher H.I., in the center, stands for king Nikita I, the first king of the Kingdom of Montenegro (1910)


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Re: Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

Post  Animal on Fri 08 Aug 2008, 2:25 pm


For the Bulgarian Army rank insignia, check [glow=red]this[/glow]topic

Cavalry man of the 1st Cavalry Rgt. He's wearing the M1908 service dress (gold King Ferdinand's cypher Φ on shoulder boards)

Cavalry man of the 2nd Cavalry Rgt. He's wearing the M1870 service dress. 1st Cavalry Rgt had white branch piping, 2nd Cavalry Rgt had red, 3rd Cav Rgt had yellow & 4th Cav Rgt had light blue

Pvt (Rednik) of the Elite Infantry Regiment "Clementine". The Regiment's distinct colour was light blue. Cypher K (for princess Klementina) on shoulder boards

Line Infantry Lance-Cpl (Efreytor ot Pechotata), wearing the M1908 battle dress & leather boots known as "opanker"

Line Infantry Sgt (Starshi Podofitser ot Pechotata) wearing the M1908 battle dress & leather boots known as "opanker"

Artillery 1st Sgt (Feldwebel ot Artilleriata). The Feldwebel insignia was the gold lace on the collar & the gold crosscut band on shoulder boards. The chevrons on the left arm suggest 15 months of war service

Infantry 2nd Lt (Podporuchik ot Pechotata) of the Elite Infantry Rgt "Ferdinand". The distinct colour of this regiment was white. Gold Bulgarian Crown & gold cypher Φ on shoulder boards

Infantry Cpt (Kapitan, in Cavalry Rotmister) wearing the M1908 service dress

Infantry Colonel (Polkovnik ot Pechotata) wearing the M1908 service dress

Artillery Col (Polkovnik ot Artilleriata) wearing the M1908 official uniform

Lt. Gen (General-Leytenant) with the M1908 service dress

Man of the National Militia (Narodno Opolecnie) with traditional Bulgarian clothing

Fighter of the Blgarski Komitet (Bulgarian Committe), operating in Macedonia & Thrace (back then under Ottoman rule). These irregulars fought alongside the Bulgarian Army in 1912 against the Ottomans & in 1913 against the Greeks. They used the Bulgarian Army's Insignia

Infantry Sgt (Starshi Podofitser ot Pechotata), Artillery 1st Sgt (Feldwebel ot Artilleriata)

Cavalry Cpt (Rotmister), Infantry Col (Polkovnik), Infantry General (General ot Pechotata)

1-Bulgarian Army Branch Colours & Pipings: Generals-red branch colour, red piping. Staff Officers-velvet black branch colour, red piping. Infantry-red branch colour, red pipings (Rgt Nr on shoulder board except for 1st, 2nd, 5th, 6th, 8th, 9th, 17th & 22nd Inf Rgts that had the royal cypher on the shoulder boards). 1st Cav Rgt-red shoulder board & collar, white pipings. 2nd Cav Rgt-red shoulder board & collar, red pipings. 3rd Cav Rgt-red shoulder board & collar-yellow pipings. 4th Cav Rgt-purple shoulder board & collar-light blue pipings (Rgt Nr on board except for 3rd & 4th Cav Rgts that had the royal cypher). Artillery-black velvet boards, red pipings. Mountain Artillery-Black velvet shoulder boards, red pipings, cyrillic letter Π on board. Garrison Artillery-black velvet-red pipings, letter K on board. Engineers-velvet black, red pipings, Btn Nr on board. Bridging Engineers-velvet black,red pipings, fouled anchor on shoulder board. Signals-black velvet-red pipings, lightning flashes on shoulder board. Railway companies-velvet black boards, red pipings, winged wheel on shoulder board. Gendarmerie-beige shoulder boards, beige pipings, red aiguillettes.

Bulgarian War Flag


BN Petty Officer (Starzina 2)

BN Lt Cdr (kapitan 3 rang)

BN NCOs insignia: One gold crosscut band on shoulder (1cm thick)-Able Seaman (Starshi Matros), two gold bands on shoulder-Petty Officer (Starzina 2), three gold bands on shoulder-Chief Petty Officer (Starzina 1), one gold crosscut band 2cm thick on shoulder: Master Chief Petty Officer-Glavnii Starshina.
Junior, Senior & Flag Officers of the BN used the Army's insignia (gold shoulder boards with black pipings).

Bulgarian Navy Ensign


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Re: Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

Post  Animal on Fri 08 Aug 2008, 2:27 pm

OTTOMAN ARMY-Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Ordu

Lancer of the 1st Lancers Rgt of the Sultan Guard

Zouave of the Zouaves Rgt of the Sultan Guard wearing the "Selamlik" uniform

Cavalry man wearing the M1909 battle dress with a hat made of astrakhan fur

Artillery Gunner with the M1909 battle dress

Line Infantry Sgt (Çavus pron. Tzavus) wearing the M1909 battle dress

Light Infantry Sgt (Çavus). Notice the differences between the insignia worn by NCOs of the Line & Light Infantry units

4th Cav Rgt 1st Sgt (Bas-Çavus pron. Bas-Tzavus) of the Sultan Guard. The distinct colour of this Rgt was green. 4th Cav Rgt, Zouaves Rgt & 1st Lancers Rgt formed the Sultan Guard, called "Hassa"

Infantry 2nd Lt (Molazim)

Infantry Cpt (Yüzbasi) wearing the official M1909 uniform

Artillery Cpt (Yüzbasi) wearing the M1909 battle dress

Lt Gen (Ferik or Kor-Pasha) wearing the M1909 service dress

Albanian irregular wearing the Albanian traditional clothing. These irregulars fought alongside the Ottoman Army mostly against the Serbians & Montenegrins (battles of Ipek, Diakova, siege of Shkoder)

Ottoman irregular (Başi-Bazouk) wearing the M1909 battle dress with the traditional Turkish fez & opanker

Shoulder boards, form left to right: General-Mossir or Pasha (One star on board-Lt. Gen/Kor-Pasha or Ferik. No stars on shoulder board-Maj.Gen/Tüm-Pasha or Mirliva). Colonel-Miralay (One star on shoulder board-Lt.Col/Binbaşı. No stars on shoulder board-Major/Kolağası). Captain-Yüzbasi (One star on shoulder board-1st Lt/Tegmen or Molazım-ı evvel. No stars on shoulder board-2nd Lt/Molazim). The buckles shown on the right, are the ones worn on the belts of Navy Flag & Senior Officers (top) & Junior Officers (bottom)

1-Ottoman Army branch colours: Generals-red, Line Infantry-green gray, Light Infantry-green, Artillery-dark blue, Cavalry-light grey, Engineers-blue, Railway companies-light blue, Gendarmerie-red.

2-NCO insignia; Light Infantry: One green chevron point up on sleeve-Cpl/On Başı, two green chevrons-Sgt/Çavus, three green chevrons-Colour Sgt/Baş Çavus. Line Infantry: One red cutcross band on shoulder-Cpl/On Başı, two red bands on shoulder-Sgt/Çavus, three red bands on shoulder-Colour Sgt/Baş Çavus.

IMPERIAL OTTOMAN NAVY-Osmanlı İmparatorluğu Donanma

Marine Petty Officer/Çavus, wearing the battle dress. The only difference between the seaman & marine uniform was the infantry boots worn by the marines

Chief Petty Officer/Bas-Çavus wearing the summer service dress

1st Class Imam, wearing the traditional dress of the muslim clergy. The chevrons point up on the sleeves, suggest his rank

Imperial Navy Cadet wearing the M1909 official uniform. The pin-on metal globe with anchor worn on collars on gold, was the naval academy insignia. The three red stripes on sleeve suggest that he's a junior student (3rd year)

Lieutenant (Yüzbasi)

Imperial Ottoman Fleet Admiral (Kapudan-Pasha)

1-Ottoman Navy NCOs insignia; one red chevron point up on sleeve-Able Seaman/Uzman, two red chevrons-Petty Officer/Onbaşı, three red chevrons-Chief Petty Officer/Çavuş, four red chevrons-Master Chief Petty Officer/Başçavuş.
2-Ottoman Navy Officer insignia; Junior Officers: One gold stripe on sleeve (2cm thick)-Ensign/Molazım, one 2cm gold stripe above one 1cm stripe-Lieutenant Junior Grade/Teğmen, two 2cm thick gold stripes-Lieutenant/Yüzbaşı. Senior Officers: Three 2cm stripes, the first from above silver-Lt Cdr/Binbaşı, three 2cm thick stripes, the one in the middle silver-Commander/Yarbay, three 2cm thick gold stripes-Cpt/Miralay. Flag Officers: Four 2cm stripes, the first from above silver-Rear Admiral lower half/Mirliva, four 2cm thick gold stripes-Rear Admiral upper half/Ferik, three stripes, the last one from above 2.5cm thick & the one in the middle silver-Vice Admiral/Birinci Ferik, three gold stripes, the last one from above 2.5cm thick-Admiral/Moşir. The Imperial Ottoman Fleet Admiral/Kapudan-Pasha insignia is shown on the picture above.

The Imperial Ottoman Navy Ensign


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Re: Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

Post  Animal on Fri 08 Aug 2008, 2:30 pm

ROYAL ROMANIAN ARMY-Armata Regală Română

1-General de Corp de Armata (General)
2-General de Divizie (Lt.Gen)
3-General de Brigada (Maj.Gen)
4-Colonel (Infantry)
5-Locotenent-colonel (Lt.Col)-General Staff
6-Maior (Major)-5th Line Cavalry Reg
7-Capitan (Captain)-Field Artillery
8-Locotenent (1st Lt)-Engineers
9-Sublocotenent (2nd Lt)-Territorial Cavalry
10-Plutonier Maior (Color Sgt)-1st Inf Rgt
11-Plutonier (Sgt)-4th Line Cavalry Rgt
12-Sergent Maior (Lance-Sergeant)-10th Engineer Btn
13-Sergent (Cpl)-Air Corps
14-Caporal (Lance-Corporal)-9th Light In Rgt
15-Fruntas (Senior Pvt)-2nd Calarasi Rgt
16-Soldat (Pvt)-11th Artillery Rgt

Infantry Corporal (Sergent) with the M1912 battle dress

Light Infantry Sgt (Plutonier). This uniform was inspired by the typical dress of the Wallachian border troops. The point up chevron on the sleeve, suggests the rank

Lancer of the 4th "Rosiori" Cavalry Regiment wearing the M1912 battle dress. The Rosiori Regiment composed of volunteers (25%) & career officers, NCOs & men (75%)

1st Lt (Locotenent) of the 2nd "Calarasi" Cavalry Regiment. The Calarasi Regiment composed of volunteers (75%) & career officers, NCOs & men (25%). This officer is dressed in the Official Hussar Uniform

Infantry 1st Lt (Locotenent) wearing the M1912 battle dress

Lt. Gen (General de Divizie) wearing the M1912 service dress. Notice the black cavalry culottes (lampassen) with the two red stripes

Romanian National cockade, Color Sergeant's (Plutonier Major) board, Romanian Royal Cypher (the typical officer's badge of the Romanian Navy worn on the visor cap, above a silver, surrounded by laurel leaves, anchor), General's (General de corp de armata) shoulder board, Infantry Colonel's (Colonel) board, Infantry Captain's (Capitan) board

Romanian War Flag

ROYAL ROMANIAN NAVY-Marina Regală Română

RRN Lieutenant (Câpitan de marinâ)

Branch colors of the Romanian Navy:
Black-Line officers
Prussian Blue-Navy engineers
Zinober Red-Medics
Grey Musicians

Royal Romanian Navy Ranks:
Câpitan de marinâ
Locotenent de marinâ
Aspritant de marinâ
Plutonier maior
Sergent maior
Marinar frinklas

Royal Romanian Navy Ensign


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Great ref material

Post  wfrad on Sat 09 Aug 2008, 8:35 am

You’ve certainly put some work in on this lot, great reference material.
Good Ottoman insignia's quite hard to find, thanks.


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Re: Balkan States Insignia & Uniforms (Balkan Wars of 1912-13)

Post  Sean on Mon 01 Mar 2010, 12:21 am

A Serb Army picture probably after the Balkan War but before WWI.


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Forgot this one

Post  Sean on Mon 01 Mar 2010, 12:27 am

Serbian infantry at field training


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